Programmers for electronic development work need to support a wide range of chips. Additionally new chip technologies should be supported fast after they are available. Standard universal programmers offering 48 pin sockets. Whenever chips have more than 48 pins, separate adapters are neccessarly for each chip family. Some of the programmers below are equipped with up to 240 pin drivers and therefore require only one 1:1 adapter for each package type, instead of a wide range of chip-specific adapters.